- No FAQs found
- ABL Kinase Domain Mutation in CML, Cell-based
- ABO Group and Rh Type
- Acid-Fast Bacillus (AFB) Identification, Sequencing and Stain, Paraffin Block
- ADAMTS13 Activity with Reflex to ADAMTS13 Inhibitor
- Alcohol Metabolites, Quantitative, Urine
- Alpha-Globin Common Mutation Analysis
- Alpha-Globin Gene Deletion or Duplication
- Alpha-Globin Gene Sequencing
- Anti-Müllerian Hormone AssessR™
- Anti-PF4 and Serotonin Release Assay (SRA) for Diagnosing Heparin-induced Thrombocytopenia/Thrombosis (HIT/HITT)
- Antiphospholipid Antibodies
- APC Sequencing and Deletion/Duplication
- ASCVD Risk Panel with Score
- Autoimmune Epilepsy Evaluation
- Autoimmune Diseases, Tests for
- Bordetella pertussis toxin (PT) antibody
- B-cell and T-cell Clonality Assays by PCR
- B-Type Natriuretic Peptide (BNP)
- BCR-ABL1 Gene Rearrangement, Quantitative PCR
- Beta-Globin Complete
- Biotin: Interference with Laboratory Assays
- BRCA Ashkenazi Jewish Screen
- BRCA Ashkenazi Jewish Screen with Reflex to BRCA Panel (BRCA1, BRCA2)
- BRCA Panel (BRCA1, BRCA2)
- BRCA Panel Plus
- BRCA1 and BRCA2 Deletion/Duplication
- BRCAvantage®, Rearrangements
- BRCAvantage™, Single Site
- CDH1 Sequencing and Deletion/Duplication
- CHEK2 Sequencing and Deletion/Duplication
- Clostridium difficile Diagnostic Testing
- C1 Inhibitor, Protein and Functional Tests
- Calreticulin (CALR) Mutation Analysis
- Carbapenem Resistant Enterobacteriaceae Culture Screen
- Cardio IQ Lipoprotein Fractionation, Ion Mobility
- CardioIQ® Insulin Resistance Panel with Score
- CDH1 Sequencing and Deletion/Duplication
- Cervical Cancer, TERC, FISH
- CFvantage® Cystic Fibrosis Expanded Screen
- Chlamydia trachomatis, TMA
- Chlamydia trachomatis/Neisseria gonorrhoeae RNA, TMA
- Chromosomal Microarray, POC, ClariSure®, Oligo-SNP
- Chromosomal Microarray, Postnatal, ClariSure® Oligo-SNP
- Chromosomal Microarray, Prenatal, ClariSure® Oligo-SNP
- Chromosome Analysis and AFP with Reflex to AChE, Fetal Hgb, Amniotic Fluid
- Chromosome Analysis, Amniotic Fluid
- Chromosome Analysis, Blood
- Chromosome Analysis, Blood with Reflex to Postnatal, ClariSure® Oligo-SNP Array
- Chromosome Analysis, Chorionic Villus Sample
- Chromosome Analysis, High Resolution
- Chromosome Analysis, High Resolution with Reflex to Postnatal, ClariSure® Oligo-SNP Array
- Chromosome Analysis, Mosaicism
- Chromosome Analysis, Neonatal Blood
- Chromosome Analysis, Sister Chromatid Exchange
- Chromosome Analysis, Tissue
- Chromosome DEB Assay for Fanconi anemia
- Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) - Diagnostic and Prognostic Testing
- Comprehensive Hereditary Cancer Panel
- Culture, Fungus
- Culture, Urine, Routine
- Cystic Fibrosis Screen
- Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) PCR
- Cytomegalovirus (CMV) IgG avidity
- D-Dimer, Quantitative
- Dementia, Secondary Causes
- Dengue Virus Testing
- Diagnosis of Intestinal Parasites
- Donor Testing
- Drug Monitoring, Antidepressants, With Confirmation, Urine and Serum
- Drug Testing, General Toxicology (Blood, Urine, or Serum)
- Drug Toxicology Alcohol Metabolite, with Confirmation, Oral Fluid
- Drug Toxicology Monitoring, Oral Fluid Testing
- FLT3 Mutation Analysis
- Factor V (Leiden) Mutation Analysis
- Factor VIII Activity, Clotting
- Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH) Panel
- Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH) Single Site
- Familial Mediterranean Fever Mutation Analysis
- First Trimester Screen, hCG
- First Trimester Screen, Hyperglycosylated hCG (h-hCG)
- FISH, Angelman
- FISH, MET Amplification
- FISH, Myeloma, 17p-, rea 14q32 with Reflexes
- FISH, Prader-Willi
- FISH, Prenatal Screen
- Follicular Lymphoma, EZH2 Mutation, COBAS
- Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) Antibody Discontinuation
- Heparin, Anti-Xa
- Hepatitis B Surface Antibody, Quantitative
- Hepatitis B Surface Antigen, Quantitative, Monitoring
- Hepatitis C Antibody with Reflex to HCV RNA, PCR with Reflex to Genotype
- Hepatitis C Viral RNA Genotype 1 NS5A Drug-resistance
- Hepatitis C Viral RNA Genotype 3 NS5A Drug Resistance
- Hepatitis C Viral RNA NS3 Drug Resistance
- Hepatitis C Viral RNA, Genotype, LiPA
- Hepatitis C Virus Antibody and RNA Testing
- Hereditary Breast Cancer Panel
- Hereditary Cancer Panels: MYvantageTM Hereditary Comprehensive Cancer Panel and GIvantageTM Hereditary Colorectal Cancer Panel
- Hereditary Cancer Single Site(s)
- Hereditary Colorectal Cancer Panel
- Hereditary Endocrine Cancer Panel
- Hereditary Hemochromatosis DNA Mutation Analysis
- Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) Type-Specific IgG Antibodies
- Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 (HSV-2) IgG Inhibition, ELISA
- HIV Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) Testing
- HIV-1 Coreceptor Tropism, Proviral DNA
- HIV-1 Coreceptor Tropism, Ultradeep Sequencing
- HIV-1 Integrase Genotype
- HIV-1 Resistance, Proviral DNA (RTI, PI, Integrase Inhibitors)
- HIV-1/2 Antigen and Antibodies, Fourth Generation, with Reflexes
- HPV mRNA E6/E7
- Infliximab and Adalimumab Drug and Anti-drug Antibody Testing
- Influenza A and B Antigen, Immunoassay
- Influenza Type A and B Antibodies
- Insulin, Intact, LC/MS/MS
- Integrated Screen, Part 1
- Integrated Screen, Part 2
- Intrinsic Factor Blocking Antibody
- Isocitrate Dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (IDH1/IDH2) Mutation Analysis (IDH1 and IDH2 Mutation)
- No FAQs found
- LDL Cholesterol Calculations
- LeukoVantage® Myeloid Neoplasm Mutation Panels
- Li-Fraumeni Syndrome, TP53 Sequencing and Deletion/Duplication
- Lupus Anticoagulant (LA) Evaluation with Reflex
- Lyme Disease Testing
- Lynch Syndrome Panel
- Lynch Syndrome, MLH1 Sequencing and Deletion/Duplication
- Lynch syndrome, MSH2 Sequencing and Deletion/Duplication (Including EPCAM)
- Lynch Syndrome, MSH6 Sequencing and Deletion/Duplication
- Lynch Syndrome, PMS2 Sequencing and Deletion/Duplication
- MEN1 Sequencing and Deletion/Duplication
- MUTYH Sequencing and Deletion/Duplication
- Maternal Serum AFP
- Melanoma, BRAF V600E and V600K Mutation Analysis, THxID®
- Metanephrines, Fractionated, Free, LC/MS/MS, Plasma
- Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR), DNA Analysis
- Microalbumin (Urinary Albumin Excretion)
- Myeloproliferative Neoplasm Diagnosis: Molecular Evaluation
- NF1 Sequencing and Deletion/Duplication
- NAFLD Fibrosis Score
- Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma (NBCCS) (Gorlin) Syndrome Panel (PTCH1, SUFU)
- No FAQs found
- PALB2 Sequencing and Deletion/Duplication
- PTEN Sequencing and Deletion/Duplication
- Pain Management and CYP2D6/CYP2C19
- Pain Management Antipsychotics, With Confirmation, Serum and Urine
- Pain Management, Naltrexone, Quantitative, Urine
- Partial Thromboplastin Time, Activated (aPTT)
- Penta Screen
- Pharmacogenomics Panel
- PIK3CA Mutation Analysis
- Platelet Antibody Screen (Indirect)
- PNH with FLAER (High Sensitivity)
- Porphyria Testing
- Prothrombin Time with INR
- PTH, Intact and Calcium
- STK11 Sequencing and Deletion/Duplication
- Streptococcus pneumoniae (Pneumococcal) Antibody Tests
- Saccharomyces cerevisiae Antibodies (ASCA) (IgG, IgA)
- SARS-CoV-2 Antibody Testing
- Sequential Integrated Screen, Part 1
- Sequential Integrated Screen, Part 2
- Serum Integrated Screen, Part 1
- Serum Integrated Screen, Part 2
- Serum Pregnancy Tests
- Sickle Cell Screen
- Stepwise, Part 1
- Stepwise, Part 2
- SureSwab® Trichomonas vaginalis RNA, Qualitative TMA
- SureSwab®, Candidiasis, PCR
- TP53 Sequencing and Deletion/Duplication
- T4, Free
- Tamoxifen and Metabolites, LC-MS/MS
- Testosterone Testing
- Total Testosterone, LC/MS/MS
- Triple Screen
- Tuberous Sclerosis Complex Panel (TSC1, TSC2)
- No FAQs found
- VHL Sequencing and Deletion/Duplication
- Varicella Zoster Virus Antibody (IgG)
- Vitamin D Testing
- von Willebrand Comprehensive Panel
- No FAQs found
- No FAQs found
Hepatitis C Virus Antibody and RNA TestingTest code(s) 8472, 35645
Question 1. Where can I find the latest HCV management guidelines?
HCV management guidelines are provided by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) and the Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA).1 These organizations publish joint, evidence-based recommendations on the Internet for rapid formulation and dissemination. For more information, visit http://www.hcvguidelines.org.
Question 2. For whom is HCV screening recommended?
The US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) and the CDC recommend 1-time screening for HCV infection for adults born 1945 through 1965.2,3 One-time screening is also recommended for adults with high risk due to:
- Injection drug use (current or former)3,4
- Receipt of transfusions or organ transplants prior to July 19923,4
- Having ever received long-term hemodialysis3,4
- Unregulated tattoo(s)3
- Percutaneous (eg, occupational) exposure3,4
- Receipt of clotting factor concentrates produced before 19873,4
- HIV infection; the co-infection rate among this group is 20% to 30%5
Screening is also recommended for children born to HCV-positive mothers.3,4
Question 3. For whom is HCV testing (case finding) recommended?
HCV testing is recommended for individuals with persistently abnormal levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), or bilirubin.3,4
Question 4. What is the CDC-recommended HCV diagnostic algorithm?
Please refer to https://www.cdc.gov/hepatitis/hcv/pdfs/hcv_flow.pdf.
Question 5. How do you interpret HCV antibody "reactive” and HCV RNA “not-detected” results?
A reactive HCV antibody test result combined with a not-detected HCV RNA result indicates no laboratory evidence of a current active HCV infection; no further action is required in most cases.
If distinction between a true positive and a biologic false-positive result for HCV antibody is desired, the CDC suggests that one can consider testing with another HCV antibody assay. If there is concern regarding the handling or storage of the test specimen, obtain a new sample for repeat testing.6
Question 6. Is it possible to have HCV infection and have a non-reactive HCV antibody test result?
Yes. Among persons with a non-reactive HCV antibody test, who are suspected of having liver disease or are at high risk of acute infection, testing for HCV RNA or follow-up testing for HCV antibody is recommended if high-risk exposure to HCV occurred within the past 6 months. Additionally, testing for HCV RNA can also be considered in persons who are immunocompromised (eg, persons who are receiving long-term hemodialysis or are HIV infected).
Question 7. What proportion of HCV antibody-reactive specimens are found to contain HCV RNA upon reflex testing of the same specimen?
Among specimens with reactive HCV antibody results, approximately 52% have detectable HCV RNA at a level of >15 IU/mL on reflex testing. However, the frequency varies markedly based on the strength of the signal of the antibody test, or signal-to-cutoff (S/C) ratio. Specimens with an S/C ratio of at least 1.0 are considered reactive for HCV antibody7 and thus undergo reflex testing for HCV RNA. Analysis of approximately 200,000 specimens submitted to Quest Diagnostics for HCV antibody testing with reflex to HCV RNA testing demonstrate that the frequency of positive reflex results increases with increasing S/C ratio:
Question 8. What do the following HCV RNA results mean: “<15 IU/mL Detected” or “<15 IU/mL Not Detected”?
The result “<15 IU/mL, Detected” means that HCV RNA is detected, although at a level (<15 IU/mL) that is too low to be quantified. This result could indicate current active HCV infection if consistent with other clinical and laboratory data. NOTE: If this test is being performed for HCV diagnosis, then this <15 IU/mL Detected result should be confirmed using a second sample from the patient.
In contrast, the result “<15 IU/mL, Not Detected” means that HCV RNA is not detected and there is no evidence of current active infection.
Quest Diagnostics measures HCV RNA viral load with the Roche cobas® HCV methodology. This is a quantitative real-time PCR assay with a lower limit of quantification (LOQ) of 15 IU/mL; the limit of detection (LOD) is slightly lower, at 10 IU/mL to 13 IU/mL. If the viral load is just at or above this LOD, but less than 15 IU/mL, the assay can determine that HCV RNA is present but cannot provide a reliable quantitative result. In such cases, the qualitative result of “<15 IU/mL, Detected” is provided.
Question 9. Why are HCV RNA results being reported in IU/mL? What does log IU/mL mean?
HCV RNA results are reported in IU/mL, which is the abbreviation for international units per milliliter. Results are reported in IU/mL to facilitate comparisons between results generated by different test methods. This is important because the various methods used by different laboratories are not standardized against each other. Use of IU/mL reporting units helps to make the comparison of viral load results across different methods more reliable.
HCV RNA results are also reported in log IU/mL, which is the logarithm of IU/mL. Results in this format make it easier to understand whether a change in viral load is clinically meaningful.
Replicating PCR test results using the same specimen can vary analytically by as much as 0.5 log IU/mL; thus, only changes greater than 0.5 log IU/mL from one measurement to the next (or across several measurements) are considered to represent true changes in viral load.8 Reporting the viral load results in log IU/mL units helps the healthcare provider accurately interpret changes in viral load and better assess a patient's response to antiviral treatment.
Question 10. I am treating my HCV-infected patient with direct-acting antiviral agents. The patient has detectable HCV RNA at a low level prior to completing treatment. How do I interpret these results and what would be the best next step for testing?
If HCV RNA is detectable at week 4 of treatment, per AASLD guidelines, it is suggested to repeat quantitative HCV RNA viral load testing after 2 additional weeks of treatment. If quantitative HCV RNA testing at week 6 of treatment shows an increase of greater than 10-fold (>1 log10 IU/mL), discontinuation of HCV treatment is recommended. The cause of a positive HCV RNA test result at week 4, with decreasing levels at week 6 or week 8, is unknown. There is no recommendation to stop therapy or extend therapy for these patients.9
- AASLD-IDSA. HCV guidance: recommendations for testing, managing, and treating hepatitis C. http://www.hcvguidelines.org. Accessed September 2017.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Recommendations for the identification of chronic hepatitis C virus infection among persons born during 1945–1965. MMWR. 2012;61 (RR-4):1-32.
US Preventive Services Task Force. Final Recommendation Statement: Hepatitis C: Screening. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. December 2016.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Recommendations for prevention and control of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and HCV-related chronic disease. MMWR Recomm Rep. 1998;47(RR-19):1-39.
- Panel on Opportunistic Infections in HIV-Infected Adults and Adolescents. Guidelines for the prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections in HIV-infected adults and adolescents: recommendations from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the National Institutes of Health, and the HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. http://aidsinfo.nih.gov/contentfiles/lvguidelines/adult_oi.pdf. Accessed September 2017.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Testing for HCV Infection: an update of guidance for clinicians and laboratorians. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2013;62:362-365.
- VITROS Immunodiagnostic Products Anti‑HCV Reagent Pack [package insert, version 13.0]. Rochester, NY: Ortho Clinical Diagnostics; 2017.
- Kleiber J, Walter T, Haberhausen G, et al. Performance characteristics of a quantitative, homogeneous TaqMan RT-PCR test for HCV RNA. J Mol Diagn. 2000;2:158-166.