Clinical Education Center
- No FAQs found
- ABL Kinase Domain Mutation in CML, Cell-based
- ABO Group and Rh Type
- Acid-Fast Bacillus (AFB) Identification, Sequencing and Stain, Paraffin Block
- ADAMTS13 Activity with Reflex to ADAMTS13 Inhibitor
- Alcohol Metabolites, Quantitative, Urine
- Alpha-Globin Common Mutation Analysis
- Alpha-Globin Gene Deletion or Duplication
- Alpha-Globin Gene Sequencing
- Anti-Müllerian Hormone AssessR™
- Anti-PF4 and Serotonin Release Assay (SRA) for Diagnosing Heparin-induced Thrombocytopenia/Thrombosis (HIT/HITT)
- Antiphospholipid Antibodies
- ASCVD Risk Panel with Score
- Autoimmune Epilepsy Evaluation
- Autoimmune Diseases, Tests for
- B-cell and T-cell Clonality Assays by PCR
- B-Type Natriuretic Peptide (BNP)
- BCR-ABL1 Gene Rearrangement, Quantitative PCR
- Beta-Globin Complete
- BRCAvantage®, Ashkenazi Jewish Screen
- BRCAvantage®, Rearrangements
- BRCAvantage™, Comprehensive
- BRCAvantage™, Single Site
- CDH1 Sequencing and Deletion/Duplication
- Clostridium difficile Diagnostic Testing
- C1 Inhibitor, Protein and Functional Tests
- Calreticulin (CALR) Mutation Analysis
- Carbapenem Resistant Enterobacteriaceae Culture Screen
- Cardio IQ Lipoprotein Fractionation, Ion Mobility
- Cervical Cancer, TERC, FISH
- CFvantage® Cystic Fibrosis Expanded Screen
- Chlamydia trachomatis, TMA
- Chlamydia trachomatis/Neisseria gonorrhoeae RNA, TMA
- Chromosomal Microarray, POC, ClariSure®, Oligo-SNP
- Chromosomal Microarray, Postnatal, ClariSure® Oligo-SNP
- Chromosome Analysis and AFP with Reflex to AChE, Fetal Hgb, Amniotic Fluid
- Chromosome Analysis, Amniotic Fluid
- Chromosome Analysis, Blood
- Chromosome Analysis, Blood with Reflex to Postnatal, ClariSure® Oligo-SNP Array
- Chromosome Analysis, Chorionic Villus Sample
- Chromosome Analysis, High Resolution
- Chromosome Analysis, High Resolution with Reflex to Postnatal, ClariSure® Oligo-SNP Array
- Chromosome Analysis, Mosaicism
- Chromosome Analysis, Neonatal Blood
- Chromosome Analysis, Sister Chromatid Exchange
- Chromosome Analysis, Tissue
- Chromosome DEB Assay for Fanconi anemia
- Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) - Diagnostic and Prognostic Testing
- Culture, Fungus
- Culture, Urine, Routine
- Cystic Fibrosis Screen
- Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) PCR
- D-Dimer, Quantitative
- Dementia, Secondary Causes
- Dengue Virus Testing
- Diabetes Risk Panel with Score and Cardio IQ® Diabetes Risk Panel with Score
- Drug Testing, General Toxicology (Blood, Urine, or Serum)
- Drug Toxicology Alcohol Metab, QN, Oral Fluid
- Drug Toxicology Monitoring, Oral Fluid Testing
- Factor V (Leiden) Mutation Analysis
- Familial Mediterranean Fever Mutation Analysis
- First Trimester Screen, hCG
- First Trimester Screen, Hyperglycosylated hCG (h-hCG)
- FISH, Angelman
- FISH, MET Amplification
- FISH, Myeloma, 17p-, rea 14q32 with Reflexes
- FISH, Prader-Willi
- FISH, Prenatal Screen
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- HCV Genotyping
- Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) Antibody Discontinuation
- Heparin, Anti-Xa
- Hepatitis B Surface Antibody, Quantitative
- Hepatitis C Antibody with Reflex to HCV RNA, PCR with Reflex to Genotype
- Hepatitis C Viral RNA Genotype 1 NS5A Drug-resistance
- Hepatitis C Viral RNA Genotype 3 NS5A Drug Resistance
- Hepatitis C Viral RNA NS3 Drug Resistance
- Hepatitis C, RNA, Quantitative, PCR
- Hereditary Cancer Panels: MYvantageTM Hereditary Comprehensive Cancer Panel and GIvantageTM Hereditary Colorectal Cancer Panel
- Hereditary Hemochromatosis DNA Mutation Analysis
- Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) Type-Specific IgG Antibodies
- Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 (HSV-2) IgG Inhibition, ELISA
- HIV-1 Coreceptor Tropism, Proviral DNA
- HIV-1 Coreceptor Tropism, Ultradeep Sequencing
- HIV-1 Integrase Genotype
- HIV-1/2 Antigen and Antibodies, Fourth Generation, with Reflexes
- HPV mRNA E6/E7
- Influenza A and B Antigen, Immunoassay
- Influenza Type A and B Antibodies
- Insulin, Intact, LC/MS/MS
- Integrated Screen, Part 1
- Integrated Screen, Part 2
- Intrinsic Factor Blocking Antibody
- No FAQs found
- No FAQs found
- Maternal Serum AFP
- Melanoma, BRAF V600E and V600K Mutation Analysis, THxID®
- Metanephrines, Fractionated, Free, LC/MS/MS, Plasma
- Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR), DNA Analysis
- Microalbumin (Urinary Albumin Excretion)
- Pain Management and CYP2D6/CYP2C19
- Pain Management, Naltrexone, Quantitative, Urine
- Partial Thromboplastin Time, Activated (aPTT)
- Penta Screen
- PIK3CA Mutation Analysis
- Platelet Antibody Screen (Indirect)
- PNH with FLAER (High Sensitivity)
- Prothrombin Time with INR
- PTH, Intact and Calcium
- Streptococcus pneumoniae (Pneumococcal) Antibody Tests
- Saccharomyces cerevisiae Antibodies (ASCA) (IgG, IgA)
- Sequential Integrated Screen, Part 1
- Sequential Integrated Screen, Part 2
- Serum Integrated Screen, Part 1
- Serum Integrated Screen, Part 2
- Serum Pregnancy Tests
- Sickle Cell Screen
- Stepwise, Part 1
- Stepwise, Part 2
- SureSwab® Trichomonas vaginalis RNA, Qualitative TMA
- SureSwab®, Candidiasis, PCR
- TP53 Sequencing and Deletion/Duplication
- T4, Free
- Tamoxifen and Metabolites, LC-MS/MS
- Testosterone Testing
- Total Testosterone, LC/MS/MS
- Triple Screen
- No FAQs found
- No FAQs found
- No FAQs found
Zika and Other Emerging Viruses Transmitted by Aedes Mosquitos
Question 1. Which emerging viruses are transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes?
The Chikungunya, dengue, and Zika viruses are transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. All 3 viruses have overlapping clinical symptoms and may be found in the same geographic locations.
Question 2. Where has the Zika virus been found?
Outbreaks have been reported throughout the world.1 In May 2015, Brazil reported the first outbreak of Zika virus infection in the Americas. As of September 2016, 48 countries or territories in the Americas, 8 countries in Oceania, and 1 country each in Africa and Asia are reporting active Zika infection.2
Local transmission of the Zika virus has occurred in the United States. As of September 14, 2016, there are a total of 3,176 Zika cases in the United States, as follows:
- Locally acquired mosquito-borne cases reported: 43
- Travel-associated cases reported: 3,132
- Laboratory acquired cases reported: 1
All Countries and Territories with Active Zika Transmission (as of August 2016)
Question 3. Who is at risk for Zika virus infection?
Anyone living in or traveling to an endemic area is at risk if bitten by an Aedes mosquito. In addition, persons in areas where the Aedes mosquitoes are found may also be at risk as the virus expands its geographic range.
There are other reported modes of transmission which may put people at risk (see Question 5).
Question 4. What are the signs and symptoms of Zika virus infection?
Most (80%) of the people infected with Zika virus are asymptomatic.1 When symptoms do occur, they are usually mild and may include fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia, or nonpurulent conjunctivitis. Symptoms typically last from several days to a week. Severe disease requiring hospitalization is uncommon, and fatalities are very rare.
The virus may be associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome, a rare paralytic syndrome that sometimes occurs after certain infections. Microcephaly and other congenital anomalies have been associated with Zika infection in pregnant women (see below). The association with microcephaly has not been seen in other viral illnesses transmitted by the Aedes mosquito.
In addition to mosquito-to-human transmission, Zika virus infection can be transmitted from mother to child during pregnancy, resulting in congenital infection. The virus can also be spread via sexual activity, blood transfusion, and laboratory exposure. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends that pregnant women abstain from sex or use condoms for all sexual activity if their sexual partner has traveled to, or lives in, an area with active Zika virus transmission. This recommendation should be followed for the duration of the pregnancy.3
There is a theoretical concern that transmission could occur through organ or tissue transplantation. Although Zika virus RNA has been detected in breast milk, transmission through breastfeeding has not been documented. There are no current recommendations in the United States to avoid breastfeeding.
The Zika virus can be transmitted from a woman to her baby during pregnancy or around the time of birth, but it is currently not known how often this occurs. There has been a marked increase in the number of infants born with microcephaly in Brazil. Although it is unknown how many of these cases are related to Zika infection, at least some of the infants are known to have been infected. There have also been some cases of confirmed Zika RNA causing miscarriages. Additional studies are warranted to further investigate the association and to understand any other adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with Zika virus infection.
The CDC has issued a travel alert (Level 2, Practice Enhanced Precautions) for people traveling to certain regions and countries where Zika virus transmission is ongoing. As the outbreak is evolving quickly, please refer to the CDC’s updated travel notices (http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/notices).
Women who are pregnant, or are planning to become pregnant, are advised to postpone travel to affected areas if possible. Some countries are recommending that women try to postpone pregnancy until the outbreak is contained. Pregnant women in Zika virus-affected areas should protect themselves from mosquito bites by using air conditioning and screens to keep mosquitoes outdoors, using bed nets if unable to keep mosquitoes outdoors, wearing long sleeves and pants, and using permethrin-treated clothing and gear and insect repellents. Pregnant and lactating women can use all U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-registered insect repellents according to the product label.
For additional information about pregnancy and the Zika virus, please refer to these Web pages:
- Update: Interim guidance for health care providers caring for pregnant women with possible Zika virus exposure—United States, July 2016. CDC.gov/mmwr/volumes/65/wr/mm6529e1.htm?s_cid=mm6529e1_e
- CDC guidance for travel and testing of pregnant women and women of reproductive age for Zika virus infection related to the investigation for local mosquito-borne Zika virus transmission in Miami-Dade and Broward Counties, Florida. Emergency.cdc.gov/han/han00393.asp
Question 7. Who should be tested for a Zika infection?
Testing for Zika virus infection should be limited to specimens collected from patients meeting the CDC’s clinical and/or epidemiological criteria for testing (see CDC.gov/zika/hc-providers/index.html). Criteria for evaluating and testing infants can be found in the CDC interim guidelines (see Question 9).
Question 8. Which tests should be used to diagnose Zika virus infection?
The recommended tests include Zika virus RNA and/or antibody tests. It is further recommended that all persons suspected of having Zika infection be tested for chikungunya and dengue infections. The symptoms overlap, and the viruses are transmitted in the same regions by the same mosquito vector.
Zika virus RNA testing should be performed during the acute phase of infection, generally up to 2 weeks after onset of symptoms.
IgM antibodies rise shortly after symptom onset and persist for up to 12 weeks; therefore, IgM antibody testing is most useful 2 to 12 weeks following the onset of symptoms.There can be antibody cross-reactivity with other flaviviruses, such as dengue, West Nile, and yellow fever. Thus, confirmation of Zika virus IgM positive or equivocal test results is necessary and should be conducted according to CDC algorithms. The gold standard test for IgM confirmation is a plaque-reduction neutralization test (PRNT).
Refer to CDC.gov/zika/laboratories/lab-guidance.html for the CDC’s guidance for laboratory testing.
Additional information concerning the Zika virus can be found at QuestDiagnostics.com/Zika. For the latest information from the CDC, see “CDC Guidelines for Health Care Providers” at CDC.gov/zika/hc-providers/index.html.
Additional information about the chikungunya virus and the available tests can be found at: QuestDiagnostics.com/TestCenter/TestGuide.Action?dc=CF_Chikungunya.
For more information about testing for all 3 viruses, refer to the CDC memorandum “Updated Diagnostic Testing for Zika, Chikungunya, and Dengue Viruses in the US Public Health Laboratories” (January 13, 2016) at CDC.gov/zika/pdfs/denvchikvzikv-testing-algorithm.pdf.
- Hennessey M, Fischer M, Staples JE. Zika virus spreads to new areas—region of the Americas, May 2015-January 2016. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2016;65:55–58. http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6503e1.
- All countries and territories with active Zika virus transmission. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Website. http://www.cdc.gov/zika/geo/active-countries.html. Updated August 31, 2016. Accessed September 13, 2016.
- Oster AM, Brooks JT, Stryker JE, et al. Interim guidelines for prevention of sexual transmission of Zika virus—United States, 2016. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2016;65 (Early Release):1-2. http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6505e1er.